The “War on Drugs” technically started in the 1870s when the federal government outlawed opium bars in their attempted resolution to the influx of Asian-American population (Drug Policy. “A Brief History of the Drug War.” 2014. drugpolicy.org/new-solutions-drug-policy/brief-history-drug-war).
According to a Stanford University study, “The Harrison Narcotics Act, passed in 1914, was the United States first federal drug policy. The act restricted the manufacture and sale of marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and morphine.”
Although the first federal drug policy wasn’t actually enacted until 1914, there were three key components to this evolving “war”: Time, Tension, Race.
In the 1900’s cocaine was outlawed in efforts to stigmatize and racially profile black men (Drug Policy. “A Brief History of the Drug War.” 2014. drugpolicy.org/new-solutions-drug-policy/brief-history-drug-war).
From early on the federal government used the criminalization of drugs as a way to criminalize race itself, too.
Some would say that capitalism is bred this way. Now that the government, state, and corporate crimes remain dominant in todays trending scandals, we must stay conscious of where harm and crimes are concerned, too.
But, long ago was when this battle between the power elite and the few who have few had begun. The battle between race and the power elite has been a growing tension for far too long.
Race and the War on Drugs intersect in absorbent amounts throughout this case study. They intersect in our daily workings, our lives, and even our thoughts, too.
People aren’t inherently born racist, but the federal government did declare a war on drugs for one reason: To breed a criminal… not to mention the power aspect may have contributed to the narcissistic attitude, too.
I argue that the forced misery will bring to an eventual uprising of the lower and bottom classes—which are growing bigger in amount—leaving the upper class—who are now the very few power elite left—to fight for their survival.
I think that Marx would agree to this fact. Marx defined the essence of what it meant to be the ultimate “capitalism.” Marx predicted America’s downfall from the very beginning.
The least we can do is give Marx some credit!
For more, check out Karl Marx’s brief biographic discussion at: “http://www.egs.edu/library/karl-marx/biography/” and read the testament of his “Immiseration Thesis.”
Marx didn’t leave a lot to wonder when he had the theory all figured out from the get go.
But, what it can lead to is more theological debate in the area of the “War on Drugs,” and race as an intersectionality.
Moving on with the case study, I want to show you a progression of how the administrations throughout the federal government link the war on drugs to race and government crime.
According to pbs.org in 1968 the “Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs” is founded by the Johnson administration. Next, PBS claims in the study by Psychiatrist Dr. Robert DuPont in a D.C. jail system in August of 1969 links crime and heroin addiction.
DuPont provided a 44% test “positive” rate for heroin addiction within the area of his study.
With these key and crucial findings DuPont convinces the city’s, Mayor Walter Washington, to allow him to provide methadone treatment to heroin addicts. Take into account this is a Federally linked government sanctioned action, and links methadone treatment to the first Federal Government trials by DuPont.
This is the very study that links heroin addiction and the treatment and use of methadone to tens of thousands (maybe more) people. There is also a problem with the way pharmaceuticals go about methadone use, too.
For instance, the website you find called “TheTrialLawyers.com” or “MethadoneLawyer.com” claiming lawsuits for the overdose and/or malpractice of methadone patients, linking studies to deaths. Why would we need such legal entities to represent something the government originally made for us? Why is methadone raising so many issues.
In one final case representation a “Colorado man has filed a lawsuit against a local pain clinic which he says negligently prescribed a fatal dose of the drug methadone to his wife,” quoted by “Heygood Orr and Pearson” on July 25, 2012.
So, not only has the Federal Government been supplying their own doses of methadone to our nation, but they provide the capabilities for smaller businesses to use their manufactured drug to “dose” people.
This problem started with the Federal Government from the long ago, 1969 study by DuPont.
I would now like to focus my attention on the founding on the “Narcotics Treatment Administration” in 1970, fund provided by the Nixon administration to Doctor Robert DuPont to expand his methadone program.
PBS goes on to state that, “The program is controversial because some believe methadone to be nothing more than a substitute for heroin, and others feel there are racial undertones behind the effort.”
Great point PBS!
We think of all is a cause of the funding from the Federal Government to such programs, as a way to criminalize a race. It’s also a control of a population that are deemed stigmatized and labeled for life.
With this all being said, there was a final straw for Nixon, and his forceful call to the declaration of the “War on Drugs.”
Nixon’s last straw was in 1971 when heroin strikes again. As stating PBS as a reputable holder of this information, I quote one more time:
- 1971- “Soldiers in Vietnam develop heroin addiction. Congressmen Robert Steele (R-CT) and Morgan Murphy (D-IL) release an explosive report on the growing heroin epidemic among U.S. servicemen in Vietnam.”
- 1971- “Nixon declares war on drugs. At a press conference Nixon names drug abuse as ‘public enemy number one in the United States.’ He announces the creation of the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP), to be headed by Dr. Jerome Jaffe, a leading methadone treatment specialist…”
So, we see the war on drugs progression took all the way from the 1870s to grow taller than John Dillinger. Drugs are now in 1972 America’s number one enemy, and classified as an official, “war.”
Throughout the upcoming years of Nixon’s administration he forms “The Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement.” The Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement was created to fight the drug trade at a street level. This happened in 1972. Only a year previous did Nixon declare the war on drugs. Now Nixon has taken enforcement to the streets to fight against the very people he governs. Again, another point being, “Who is deemed a criminal?”
According to PBS, in the following year (1973) “The Drug Enforcement Administration is established” where “President Nixon sets up this ‘super agency’ to handle all aspect of the drug problem.” This is the first official establishment of the DEA in America. The DEA work along side the “BNDD, Customs, the CIA, and ODALE.” Heading this operation is John R. Bartels.
After Nixon’s takeover and the firm establishment of the “War on Drugs” in 1971, Nixon resigns due to the “Watergate” scandal. But, Nixon’s reformation and establishment of the super-power “DEA” still remains in high priority to the Federal Government in their task of fighting the “War on Drugs.”
Taking the debate further, I will now focus on the establishment of the DEA, along side the DEA’s commission in the “War on Drugs” and how they have enacted many federal and corporate crimes throughout their reign of terror.
The DEA is the agency put into place for persecuting and putting on trial the “offenders” in the war on drugs. The offenders in the war on drugs are the very people that the DEA is set to protect. THE REST OF US.
The DEA is an entity of the Federal Government, too.
If the Federal Government is raging a race war against minorities and those of less status and socioeconomic standing, this is by far one of the biggest government crimes that we see today. This phenomenon is what most perceive as “colorblind racism,” defined by Michelle Alexander best in “The New Jim Crow” (2010).
The DEA is raiding homes and forcing families onto the streets. The DEA is taking the war as far as to stigmatize celebrities (who are already stigmatized enough) and set up drug raids in efforts to catch everyone.
Take for instance this article by “The Associated Press” publicist Jim Litke stating that, “DEA agents raid NFL medical staffs after games.”
Raiding NFL medical staff is an impediment on human rights, and violates corporate social status (Such as the NFL’s reputation).
Litke states, ““DEA agents are currently interviewing NFL team doctors in several locations as part of an ongoing investigation into potential violations of the (Controlled Substances Act).”
To go on stating further about the Federal Government and regulations placed upon the “normal man,” the “Controlled Substances Act” states on FDA.gov that, “The Attorney General may delegate any of his functions under this subchapter to any officer or employee of the Department of Justice.”
This above provision gives the Federal Government, and the President of the United States himself liability to all actions and crimes committed in the war on drugs. You could argue it with the best of them, I bet!
To reiterate my previous fact Fda.gov states, “The Attorney General may promulgate and enforce any rules, regulations, and procedures which he may deem necessary and appropriate for the efficient execution of his functions under this subchapter.”
The second above provision proves all oversight and action taken by the DEA (which is a federal agency) is seen by an organizational leader (the President of the United States of America).
Now seen that the Federal Government is taken into account for the incarceration of a people—as Michelle Alexander so easily hints in the New Jim Crow—we can now focus our attention on “mass incarceration” and the “privatization of prison systems.”
This is a system where minorities are unequally represented as a total population, and shown as the victims of War on Drugs today (as compared to Asian-American’s in the 1870s).
In “The Drug War against Civil Liberty and Human Rights” by Kopel and Krause they exercise the right to say that, “The root of the drug war in the United States is exploitation of public fear of people who are different—fear of racial and cultural minorities.” This is closest to the truth within the Federal Government’s actions and the DEA’s rage in the War Against Drugs.
We might rather call it the “War against Races.” Or just someone bullying the less fortunate around… take your pick?
We can even go as far to say it is “The New Jim Crow,” as stated by Michelle Alexander (published 2010).
In a short summary of “The New Jim Crow,” newjimcrow.com goes on to state, “The New Jim Crow is a stunning account of the rebirth of a caste-like system in the United States, one that has resulted in millions of African Americans locked behind bars and then relegated to a permanent second-class status—denied the very rights supposedly won in the Civil Rights Movement.”
For laymen terms: A lot of unequal laws are putting a lot of people in situations of inequality, and putting a lot of people in prison for lot of petty drug crimes, because the man in charge says so.
This is a crime against humanity. This is a crime against those struggling who need real help, versus being thrown into a system and locking away the key! Where does the true answer lie in this idea between Jack and the Giant?
This is all a result of the DEA and their War on Drugs, which started in the 1800’s, and progressed through, unto the declaration of the war in 1971.
This is a scientific approach behind the war on drugs. This could be where a lot of questions come from.
But, does this have true insight on a ground level?
It shows some historical aspect, which is where we should start an argument and incur our own social hypotheses. We must also look at this on a personal level, too. And, this is where self-help and addiction awareness sites come in handy for the true understanding, and inner workings, of an addiction, and it’s cycle.
We know this is where the term, “War on Drugs,” originated. But, the roots lie so much deeper than that. The war of any drug, or person, or “thing” cannot be broken down to true science, when there is so much more emotion and anguish from the devastation that it has caused.
The war is rooted deeper than Nixon or 1870s opium bars. The root of addiction lies in the very social fabric we live in. You can make the change, and the time… is now!
- “Heygood Orr and Pearson. Colorado man filed methadone overprescription lawsuit against pain clinic. July 25, 2012. http://www.hop-law.com/colorado-man-files-methadone-overprescription-lawsuit-against-pain-clinic/.”
- “PBS. Thirty Years of America’s Drug War: A Chronology. 2014. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/cron/”
- “Drug Policy. A Brief History of the Drug War. 2014. http://www.drugpolicy.org/new-solutions-drug-policy/brief-history-drug-war”
- “Stanford University. History of U S Drug Policy. 2015. https://web.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/paradox/htele.html”
- Trebach, Arnold. 1982. The Heroin Solution. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press
- Wisotsky, Steven. 1990. Beyond the War on Drugs. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books
- “Michelle Alexander. The New Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. The New Press. 2010. http://newjimcrow.com/about
- Jim Litke. DEA agents raid NFL media staff after games. The Associated Press. Nov 17, 2014. http://www.journalstandard.com/article/20141117/News/141119520#sthash.2ItK3elN.dpuf”
- “ U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA. “Controlled Substances Act.” 06/11/2009. http://www.fda.gov/regulatoryinformation/legislation/ucm148726.htm#cntlsbe”
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